Prevalence of Anencephaly by County, New Mexico, 2015-2019
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Why Is This Important?
Birth defects pose a significant public health problem. One in 33 babies is born with a structural birth defect in the United States. Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality and are responsible for considerable morbidity and disability with enormous economic and social costs. Anencephaly is not compatible with life. Infants born with anencephaly die within a few days of birth. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that women of childbearing age increase consumption of the vitamin folic acid to reduce the number of spina bifida and anencephaly cases in the United States. By 1998, <30% of women were following this recommendation. In 2001, researchers from CDC determined that the overall birth prevalence of these two neural tube defects declined 19% after mandatory folic acid fortification.
Anencephaly means an infant is born without a skull, with cerebral hemispheres completely missing or reduced to small masses attached to the base of the skull. Prevalence of anencephaly is the number of live-born infants with anencephaly per 10,000 live-born infants. (Live-born infants are infants born with any evidence of life.) New Mexico live-born infants with anencephaly, 2015-2019.
Data NotesThe following International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) codes were used in 2015 to identify anencephaly: 740.0 - 740.1 and Q00.0-Q00.1, respectively. Only ICD-10-CM code was used from 2016-2019. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6-digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify anencephaly: 740.10.
- Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS), New Mexico Department of Health.
- Birth Certificate Data, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS), Epidemiology and Response Division, New Mexico Department of Health.
How the Measure is Calculated
Numerator:Number of live-born infants with anencephaly
Denominator:Number of live-born infants
Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS)
Birth defects are reported on the birth certificates, which are provided for all births occurring in-state as well as births to NM resident mothers who gave birth out-of-state. Some birth defects (Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Tetralogy of Fallot, Transposition of Great Arteries, Hypospadias, Lower and Upper Limb Deficiencies, and Trisomy 21) were not reported on birth certificates until 2004.
Birth Certificate Data
Birth certificate information is submitted electronically by hospital medical records staff who use standard mother and facility worksheets and medical charts to collect the needed information. Training of hospital staff is provided by the Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS). The birth certificate information is reviewed by BVRHS for completeness and consistency with state law and NMDOH and national guidelines. BVRHS will contact hospital staff for clarification of missing, inconsistent or incorrect entries. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics provides feedback to BVRHS on data quality and the NMDOH provides feedback to the hospitals to improve data quality and training.
Health Topic Pages Related to: Birth Defects - Prevalence of Anencephaly per 10,000 Live Births
Community Health Resources and Links
- Healthy People 2030 Website
- The Guide to Community Preventive Services
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
- County Health Rankings
- Kaiser Family Foundation's StateHealthFacts
Medical literature can be queried at the PubMed website.