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Why Is This Important?
Birth defects pose a significant public health problem. One in 33 babies is born with a structural birth defect in the United States. Birth defects cause one in five deaths among infants less than a year old and lead to $2.6 billion per year in hospital costs alone in the U.S. For cleft lip with or without cleft palate, infants with this condition can have difficulty feeding, and may use assistive devices for feeding. Children with cleft palates are at high risk for hearing problems due to ear infections. Cleft lip can be corrected when the infant can tolerate surgery. Surgical correction is begun as soon as possible with cleft palate.
A cleft lip occurs when the fetal components of the lip fail to fuse or join, which forms a groove or fissure in the lip. A cleft palate occurs when the palate fails to fuse properly, which forms a grooved depression or fissure in the roof of the mouth. Prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the number of live-born infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate per 10,000 live-born infants. (Live-born infants are the infants born with any evidence of life.) New Mexico live-born infants with cleft lip who may or may not also have a cleft palate, 2015-2019.
Data NotesThe following International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) codes were used in 2015 to identify cleft lip with or without cleft palate: 749.1, 749.2 and Q36.0-Q36.9, Q37.0-Q37.9, respectively. Only ICD-10-CM code was used from 2016-2019. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6-digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify cleft lip with or without cleft palate: 749.10-749.19, 749.20-749.29.
- Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS), New Mexico Department of Health.
- Birth Certificate Data, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS), Epidemiology and Response Division, New Mexico Department of Health.
How the Measure is Calculated
Numerator:Number of live-born infants with cleft lip, who may or may not also have a cleft palate.
Denominator:Number of live-born infants.
Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS)
Birth defects are reported on the birth certificates, which are provided for all births occurring in-state as well as births to NM resident mothers who gave birth out-of-state. Some birth defects (Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Tetralogy of Fallot, Transposition of Great Arteries, Hypospadias, Lower and Upper Limb Deficiencies, and Trisomy 21) were not reported on birth certificates until 2004.
Birth Certificate Data
Birth certificate information is submitted electronically by hospital medical records staff who use standard mother and facility worksheets and medical charts to collect the needed information. Training of hospital staff is provided by the Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS). The birth certificate information is reviewed by BVRHS for completeness and consistency with state law and NMDOH and national guidelines. BVRHS will contact hospital staff for clarification of missing, inconsistent or incorrect entries. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics provides feedback to BVRHS on data quality and the NMDOH provides feedback to the hospitals to improve data quality and training.