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Why Is This Important?
Birth defects pose a significant public health problem. One in 33 babies is born with a structural birth defect in the United States. Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality and responsible for considerable morbidity and disability. Among people with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), the underdeveloped left side of the heart is unable to provide enough blood flow to the body. The normal shunts present at birth help to direct blood to the body; when these connections close the oxygen-rich blood supply decreases. Thus, babies with HLHS might look normal at birth, but will develop symptoms of HLHS within a few days. These symptoms might include: poor feeding; problems breathing; pounding heart; weak pulse; and ashen or bluish skin color. Without treatment, babies with HLHS die. Although this defect cannot be corrected, surgeries after birth can create the needed connections, or shunts, to allow the blood to get to the body.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a problem with the heart's structure that is present at birth (congenital). It is a group of related defects that, together, mean that the left side of the heart is underdeveloped. The prevalence of HLHS is the number of live-born infants with HLHS per 10,000 live born infants. (Live-born infants are the infants born with any evidence of life). New Mexico live-born infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), 2015-2019.
Data NotesThe following International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) codes were used in 2015 to identify HLHS: 746.7 and Q23.4, respectively. Only ICD-10-CM code was used from 2016-2019. In 1987, CDC put forth a set of 6-digit codes (the sixth digit provides greater specificity for diagnosis) based on the British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases and the ICD-9-CM. If CDC/BPA codes are present, the following were used to identify HLHS: 746.70.
- Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS), New Mexico Department of Health.
- Birth Certificate Data, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS), Epidemiology and Response Division, New Mexico Department of Health.
How the Measure is Calculated
Numerator:Number of live-born infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).
Denominator:Number of live-born infants.
Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System (BDPASS)
Birth defects are reported on the birth certificates, which are provided for all births occurring in-state as well as births to NM resident mothers who gave birth out-of-state. Some birth defects (Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Tetralogy of Fallot, Transposition of Great Arteries, Hypospadias, Lower and Upper Limb Deficiencies, and Trisomy 21) were not reported on birth certificates until 2004.
Birth Certificate Data
Birth certificate information is submitted electronically by hospital medical records staff who use standard mother and facility worksheets and medical charts to collect the needed information. Training of hospital staff is provided by the Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics (BVRHS). The birth certificate information is reviewed by BVRHS for completeness and consistency with state law and NMDOH and national guidelines. BVRHS will contact hospital staff for clarification of missing, inconsistent or incorrect entries. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics provides feedback to BVRHS on data quality and the NMDOH provides feedback to the hospitals to improve data quality and training.